By Elena Aguilar

A female teacher is sitting in a room with other teachers. Everyone else is out of focus.
Elena Aguilar
Many schools take a traditional approach to family engagement. It’s time to think outside of the box.

Source: Edutopia

    

By Ben Johnson

Two female teachers are sitting at a large table in a classroom. They're smiling and talking.
Ben Johnson
Observe and advise your teachers throughout the year, and at their summative evaluations, celebrate their strengths and share possible improvements through open-ended questions.

Source: Edutopia

    

By Rick Seltzer

Andover Newton Theological School’s plans to affiliate with and soon move to Yale Divinity School stand as the latest and perhaps highest-profile example of seminaries and religious institutions struggling to survive in a world of slipping enrollment and increasing financial pressure.

Seminaries and theological schools have been straining for years, prompting changes across denominations and at campuses around the country. The largest Evangelical Lutheran Church seminary in America announced major cuts in 2013. Three Assemblies of God institutions voted to consolidate in Springfield, Mo., in 2011. The Jesuit School of Theology decided to merge with Santa Clara University in California in 2009.

Even against that backdrop, Andover Newton’s decision is noteworthy. The school, founded in 1807, can stake its claim as the oldest theological graduate institution in the country — the prototype for a freestanding Protestant theological school. It credits itself for creating the model of education most other theological schools follow to this day.

The situation at Andover Newton, which is tied to the American Baptist Churches USA and the United Church of Christ, is most indicative of pressures continuing to mount on mainline Protestant institutions. Meanwhile, theological schools of other traditions are operating under a very different paradigm. Experts see a wave of new, smaller institutions and movements popping up to serve growing churches more recently founded.

Statistics from the Association of Theological Schools paint the picture clearly. Enrollment at its members has been on a slow, steady decline for years — total head count at member institutions in the United States and Canada fell from 74,253 in 2011 to 71,950 in 2014 and 72,116 in 2015. At the same time, the number of member schools has risen from 260 in 2011 to 272 in 2015. The data also show the smallest schools — those with fewer than 75 students enrolled — growing in number and grabbing a larger share of the market as midsize schools with 151 to 1,000 enrollees lost share.

The new institutions are generally being formed by immigrants, and many are injecting new life into American Protestantism, said Daniel Aleshire, executive director of the Association of Theological Schools. Many Asian-serving institutions have sprung up after immigrant communities established churches on American shores, he said. For example, America Evangelical University, a 46-student institution in Los Angeles affiliated with the Korean Evangelical Holiness Church, received Association of Theological Schools associate membership in 2014. China Evangelical Seminary North America, a 56-student nondenominational institution in West Covina, Calif., received accreditation in 2015. Other denominations that appear to be strengthening include Roman Catholicism. At the same time, institutions with larger endowments and those connected to larger institutions — like Methodist universities — remain generally strong.

All the signs of new life come as the old model that sustained many seminaries in the 19th and 20th centuries breaks down. Freestanding, dedicated institutions tied to and subsidized by traditional Protestant denominations have been hit by larger changes to religion. Mainline denomination membership has dropped, meaning churches face constraints on the amount of support they can offer to theological schools.

The dollar amount of support religious organizations send to schools has not changed in two decades, according to Aleshire. Meanwhile, the costs of running theological schools has jumped, fueled by drivers like rising technology, health care, administrative and even library costs.

In abstract, the situation for many theological schools is similar to the one faced by public universities: an outside source of support — funding from the state or church — hasn’t kept pace with rising costs. But while public universities have been able to turn to out-of-state students and the higher tuition revenue they bring in to help offset the widening gap, theological schools have had to look elsewhere.

“We have very few ATS member schools for whom the primary revenue stream is tuition,” Aleshire said. “So what’s happened, as you look at the increase of contributions from individual donors, it more than makes up for the loss of revenue from denominations. So theological schools are still about a third of their revenue streams from tuition, and two-thirds is either from religious organizations, endowments or individual donors.”

Drawing funding from individual donors is very different than drawing church support, though. Offices that solicit donations from individuals are more expensive to run than ones that open checks from church organizations. Individual donors also introduce a more complex set of relationships and motivations into the mix. And many of the schools facing these changes have just 200 to 300 students, limiting their ability to easily absorb the unexpected.

The pressures have added up to years of mergers and affiliations. About 20 percent of Association of Theological Schools members were affiliated with larger institutions 30 years ago, Aleshire said. Today it’s nearly 40 percent.

Planning and Soul-Searching

Andover Newton’s experience generally fits into that narrative about mainline Protestantism. The agreement with Yale came after much planning and soul-searching, said Sarah Drummond, Andover Newton’s dean of the faculty and vice president for academic affairs. The theological school faced mounting deferred maintenance costs on its campus outside Boston. It also saw a decline in enrollment — from 450 students in 2005 to 225 today — even as students took on more debt and faced a tighter job market.

“The ecology caught up with us,” Drummond said. “The decline in our denominations is about 45 years old, but it took a while for our seminaries to change their enrollment patterns.”

Andover Newton has held discussions about and entered different partnerships in the past — with the since-closed Bangor Theological Seminary in Maine, with Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School in Rochester, N.Y., with Meadville Lombard Theological School in Chicago and with its next-door neighbor, Hebrew College. But it’s never decided to make changes as drastic as those called for under the Yale Divinity School agreement.

Ultimately, leaders moved forward with Yale after deciding it was the right fit culturally, Drummond said. The institutions have a number of historical ties, and Yale Divinity School has a history of integrating another institution while allowing it to keep its identity — in 1971, it brought in the Episcopal Berkeley Divinity School as an affiliate.

The timeline going forward will have Andover Newton operating in two locations next year. The institution will have a small presence at Yale Divinity School at first while continuing to operate in Massachusetts until existing students can graduate. Operations are expected to gradually shift the 130 miles southwest to Yale’s New Haven, Conn., campus. If all goes well, the move should be complete in the fall of 2018, and the two sides will reach a final deal that will have Andover Newton becoming a unit within Yale Divinity School. While all details have yet to be finalized, administrators said the plan is for Yale to eventually become the degree-granting institution, much as it is for Berkeley Divinity School.

Deciding to move to Yale was not easy, Drummond said. But some change was necessary because of Andover Newton’s finances. The school had run a deficit of $1 million or more for 10 straight years as of 2014-15. That’s substantial red ink for an institution with an operating budget of approximately $6-7 million and an endowment of roughly $20 million.

“The finances were really tough,” Drummond said. “In nonjargon, we were running out of money. It’s really not any more complicated than that.”

Andover Newton will face a vastly different economic situation at Yale Divinity School. The goal at Yale is to provide full-tuition scholarships to students demonstrating need, said Gregory Sterling, Yale Divinity School dean. Average yearly tuition at Andover Newton currently averages between $9,000 and $16,000, depending on the program. The school says scholarship aid will not cover students’ full costs.

Yale Divinity School has had other discussions about bringing in institutions over the years. They didn’t progress because Yale needed a partner institution to have a certain level of resources, Sterling said.

Andover Newton has many attributes Yale wanted. Yale is an ecumenical school, meaning it strives to represent different denominations. Yale has been tilted most heavily toward the Episcopal Church after its 1971 affiliation with Berkeley Divinity. Adding Andover Newton, and its ties to the American Baptist Church and the United Church of Christ, offers balance.

The affiliation will also allow efficiencies of scale to kick in on the back end. Expenses related to administrative staff, libraries and classrooms are all easier to swallow at an institution with more resources. From a facilities standpoint, Andover Newton will no longer be tasked with keeping up a campus built for as many as 500 people.

“When they are fully here, they will have far more resources to devote to programs and student support than they currently have,” Sterling said. “One of the things that is important to realize is that most theological schools spend right at 50 percent of their budget to sustain their infrastructure — their campus, their physical buildings, not their salaries.”

Sterling admitted that the change process will not be easy. Still, Yale Divinity School wants Andover Newton to keep its identity, he said.

“We want them to have that, because they have ties to alumni, to friends that we don’t have,” he said. “It’s important that they have that independence. At the same time, they need to be fully integrated with Yale. So there’s a push-pull that goes on between those two that is delicate.”

Yale Divinity conducted a study four years ago finding its ideal size is 400 students. The school already has that many students. Total enrollment won’t change, even after Andover Newton comes onboard. The makeup of those students, and what they study, will likely be different, though. At a research institution like Yale, line of study is another balancing act.

“There is a natural pull for a divinity school to move in the direction of research, and I celebrate that,” Sterling said. “But I also want to be passionate and committed to service to churches, so I’m hoping Andover Newton’s presence will give a little more emphasis on the professional preparation, or ministerial formation.”

Sterling also talked about changes to Andover Newton’s demographics. He hopes it can draw more nationally and that it can expand its scope to include other churches with congregationalist forms of governance.

“That means they will also become a natural home for all kinds of Baptists, and perhaps for interdenominational students or nondenominational students, which is a huge movement,” Sterling said.

Andover Newton isn’t the only northeastern Protestant institution to consider shaking up its institutional structure. The Lutheran Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, in Pennsylvania, is moving to unify with the Lutheran Theological Seminary at Philadelphia. The institutions’ finances clearly favor more collaboration as student bodies shrink and buildings age, said the Reverend Dr. Kristin Johnston Largen, dean and professor of systematic theology at the Gettysburg seminary.

Gettysburg Seminary’s enrollment over the past decade dropped from 160 full-time equivalents in 2005 to 81 in 2015. That mirrors trends across the eight Evangelical Lutheran Church in America seminaries, where enrollment fell 39 percent.

The merging seminaries hope to keep both campuses open but unify under a single organization in July 2017. Having two campuses has advantages, Largen said. It could mean exposing students to different campus cultures — a more urban, diverse, commuter population in Philadelphia and a small-town, residential campus in Gettysburg. But decades down the road, it’s not clear whether a two-campus solution would continue or be re-evaluated.

Gettysburg’s student body is noteworthy for how it has declined. It still has many enrolling straight out of undergraduate programs, and it draws a substantial population of older students age 50 and above. But it’s lost those in their 30s and 40s, Largen said.

“The irony is, in the past couple years, our average student age was in the 30s, 40s, even though we didn’t have students in that age,” she said. “That has been, in the last 10 years, a little bit of a trend.”

Gettysburg Seminary wasn’t in the worst financial straits — it wasn’t drawing down its endowment, Largen said. But it found itself doing more with less and decided to explore a change sooner rather than later. The change could help it offer more programs students need in current times.

“Congregations are smaller; there are fewer of them,” Largen said. “We are just hitting the wave of a large group of retirements that are coming, so there’s also a need for more senior pastors.”

Institutions are also moving to change in ways that don’t involve mergers or affiliations. Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School has agreed to sell its 24-acre campus in upstate New York. The 130-student school announced a deal to sell the campus in May that will have it creating a new campus by the 2018 academic year.

It’s a major move both for the institution’s physical presence and its income statement. Colgate Rochester Crozer had helped compensate for a campus that was too large for its student population by leasing space to other tenants that it felt fit its mission. It brought in the American Cancer Society, Ithaca College and the Veterans Outreach Center, said Tom McDade Clay, vice president for institutional advancement.

But there are real costs in time, energy and money to keeping up a campus. Over time, Colgate Rochester Crozer was worried it could find itself skewing toward landlord and away from seminary as it used its own facilities less and less.

That wasn’t just a function of the number of students enrolled. It was a function of changes in the student body. Students are no longer just 22- and 23-year-old unmarried men attending seminary full time, McDade Clay said. They’re older and often have families. They’re carrying higher levels of student debt, working jobs and looking for evening classes.

In the end, students needed an accessible campus, not necessarily one built in the early 20th century to house a large number of single students.

“People need to work, whether they’re going full time or part time,” McDade Clay said. “The idea of a graduate program offering courses for three days a week and then people going to lunch and then to the library and then going to their second class, that’s a thing of the past.”

While many theological schools face similar pressures, they’re reacting in various ways, said the Reverend Dr. Christian Scharen, vice president of applied research and the leader of the Center for the Study of Theological Education at Auburn Seminary.

“There are lots of different ways that I think people are trying to figure out how to rightsize,” Scharen said. “Some feel more desperate to me, and some feel more mission driven.”

Many of the dynamics driving changes in theological schools today were present 10 or 15 years ago, Scharen said. More and more institutions are now having to recognize the landscape and adapt.

A key point to watch going forward will be whether longstanding theological schools tap the groundswell of new religious traditions experts see. Right now, the traditional Protestant denominations often exist in parallel to new religions practiced by immigrant communities and other worshippers.

“There is this story about the dominant white Christian churches, which, partly just because of birth rates, but also because of secularization and other dynamics, have been losing membership since the ’50s, the high-water mark,” Scharen said. “On the flip side, with Pentecostal denominations and Hispanic programs for Roman Catholic lay ministers and Churches of God, lots of independent, evangelical traditions, you see all sorts of new things being started.”

The innovation flies under the radar in many ways because the people driving it have few institutional resources. They’re “pop-up shops” located in churches, and they are often unaccredited as educational institutions, Scharen said. But they’re becoming stronger and more sophisticated as communities coalesce and grow around them.

There are also examples of existing seminaries trying to evolve to change with the time. The Christian Theological Seminary in Indianapolis, affiliated with the Disciples of Christ, has been vocal about its attempts to become more entrepreneurial and adapt its degree programs in order to keep pace with changes in religious practices. Additionally, some existing seminaries are partnering with Hispanic congregations and Pentecostal traditions in order to offer them theological education, Scharen said.

“It means they have to transform their bread-and-butter degrees — it’s a lot bigger ask,” Scharen said. “But if they can create this experiment on the site and get that going, that ends up being a really effective track for these things to make progress.”

Change is hard at any institution of higher education. It can be more difficult for theological schools and seminaries. Not only do they have the typical stakeholders and considerations — faculty, students, alumni — but they have their larger religious missions to consider.

Stick an institution between the pressures of passionate belief and cold, hard finances, and the situation can boil over. Take the case of Union Theological Seminary in New York City, which faced backlash after a plan last year to pay for facility upgrades by selling air rights that would enable a luxury condominium tower to be built. A key line of protest was that the development of a building for the rich clashed with Union’s allegiance to the poor.

Whatever the specifics of a situation, the bottom line is that more and more theological schools are evaluating their futures.

“The thread though all of these schools is they really tried to turn what they’re doing toward the future,” Scharen said.

Seminaries
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Andover Newton Theological School
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Andover Newton Theological School plans to leave its Boston-area campus.

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Doug Lederman

This month’s edition of The Pulse marks the 10th anniversary of the podcast.

In this installment, The Pulse’s host, Rodney B. Murray celebrates with a discussion of the history of podcasting (and the iPod), his own experiences with the format, and a how-to guide complete with best practices and a list of helpful apps.

The Pulse is Inside Higher Ed’s monthly technology podcast, and Murray is executive director of the office of academic technology at University of the Sciences.

Find out more, and listen to past “Pulse” podcasts, here.

Technology
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Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Ellen Wexler

When she lost her job in 2014, Amanda Condon started thinking — again — about college.

She had enrolled once before, seven years earlier. At 20, she had two children, a $600 monthly child-care bill, and a full-time job to pay for it. Her days became a frenzy of work, babysitters and nights chipping away at clinical hours.

She was exhausted, and it showed.

“It didn’t take long,” she said, “before I was called into my employer’s office and told that I would have to choose.”

In 2014, at 27, it was time to try again. But to make it to graduation, she would need more support. She was an unemployed single mother, and her children — she had three now — were 9, 7 and 2.

“There was no way,” she said, “I was going to be able to go to school, and provide for my kids, and maintain my grade average.”

She applied to the Arkansas Single Parent Scholarship Fund, a resource that she hadn’t known about the first time around. The program provides discretionary aid to low-income parents who have primary custody of their children. Condon, it seemed, fit the bill perfectly. This summer, at 29, she will graduate — debt-free — with an associate degree in emergency management.

The scholarship program started in 1990, when two county-level programs decided to expand statewide. Hillary Clinton, then the first lady of Arkansas, helped get the program off the ground and went on to serve as the board president for three years.

Now, the Democratic front-runner says the Arkansas program is the inspiration for a nationwide initiative that she’s proposed: Student Parents in America Raising Kids, or SPARK, would award up to a million student parents as much as $1,500 per year for expenses like child care and transportation. The scholarships would be paid for with part of the $350 billion set aside in her New College Compact.

“I don’t see why it can’t work in Iowa or anywhere in America,” Clinton said when she first announced the plan. “It’s not a lot of money, but it’s enough to help pay for gas or a babysitter.”

Clinton also hopes to increase funding for a federal program that provides grants for on-campus child care from $15 million to $250 million per year, which would create space for 250,000 more children. Both programs fit in with Clinton’s broader child-care plans with the goal of getting child-care costs below 10 percent of a family’s income.

‘So Many Other Expenses’

As tuition rises, even students without family responsibilities rack up thousands in debt — and for single parents, getting a degree can seem nearly impossible.

Sure, there’s financial aid — but most financial aid goes directly to the institution. That money doesn’t pay for expenses like gas or child care. Even with generous scholarship aid, many low-income single parents can’t afford to take time off from work to pursue a degree while supporting a family.

“There are many reasons why a single parent could have to drop out of school — even with all of their bills paid to the school,” said Ruthanne Hill, executive director of the Arkansas fund.

In Arkansas, recipients use the scholarships for food, rent, groceries. Arkansas is a rural state, and students commuting hours every day use the money for gas. Others use the scholarship funds for Internet access — which can benefit the whole family.

“If you’re dependent on a car and the car doesn’t work, you don’t go to class,” said Jay Barth, a member of the program’s Board of Directors. “If you don’t have access to computers or wireless, you’re unable to finish papers.”

Condon used the money for expenses like child care, which she needed to pay for in order to go to class. “There are so many other expenses,” she said. “It’s probably the most vital aid that I received.”

The money usually comes out to between $750 and $1,000 a semester — but college costs are going up, and the program is trying to get everyone up to a $1,000 minimum. Right now, the amount varies by county. Some counties offer incentives based on grades, and most require their recipients to maintain a minimum grade point average.

Still, the amount is relatively small — enough to remove barriers to an education, but not much else. “Nobody,” Hill said, “is getting rich off our scholarships.”

‘A Historically Poor State’

Over a third of Arkansas’ children grow up in poverty. Most come from families without college degrees, and Hill thinks that’s something they internalize — that they think, “College just isn’t something that my family does.”

But just watching a parent go through college, program leaders say, changes children’s expectations.

“Arkansas is a historically poor state,” Hill said. “If we can help a single parent come out of poverty, we’re helping the entire family. The second-generational effect of our work has shown from the very beginning.”

To qualify for the scholarship, applicants must be single parents — parents with primary custody of one or more children. Most are women, but some are men. Nearly all of them are low income, and many are victims of abuse.

After submitting their paperwork, applicants are interviewed about their plans and goals. The scholarships aren’t guaranteed — but at that point in the process, nearly all applicants are accepted.

Beyond the money, the program also provides support services: regional offices bring in mentors and employers, and they teach workshops on skills like financial literacy, nutrition and stress reduction. They also create social settings, which helps the students meet others in similar situations.

“Single parents oftentimes end up being very isolated from other adults,” Barth said, “and certainly isolated from other adults who really understand what they’re dealing with.”

Since it started, the program has awarded nearly 40,000 scholarships. And in 2014, 86 percent of scholarship recipients either graduated or continued in their education.

Still, the group estimates that it reaches only 10 percent of Arkansas single parents who could be expected to enroll in some form of higher education. It’s easier to publicize the fund to single parents already on campus; it’s harder to reach those who believe that earning a degree would be logistically impossible.

“We keep hearing, ‘you’re the best-kept secret in Arkansas,’” Hill said.

A National Program

The Arkansas fund, while a statewide program, is run at the county level. Each county has its own set of staff members, volunteers and eligibility requirements, and each county affiliate has some degree of autonomy.

While the county-based model has its limitations, Barth said that some of the program’s most critical services rely on it: the local volunteers, the mentorship programs, the financial literacy workshops.

Clinton’s program, meanwhile, would be a massively scaled-up version of Arkansas’. Under Clinton’s vision, states would have some control over the application process — but ultimately, it would be a nationwide effort.

ASPSF leaders think such a massive program is doable — but that it will take work. “I see the need very clearly,” Barth said. But “scaling up is always a challenge.”

While Hill wants to hear more details from Clinton, she thinks that programs like Arkansas’ would help boost state economies. In Arkansas, she sees the scholarships as an investment: when they apply, many scholarship recipients are on some form of public assistance. When they graduate, they’re earning higher salaries, paying taxes and putting more money into the economy.

“People may think we’re just another human service agency, and, of course, we do serve people — people in great need,” Hill said, “but we’re also a great advantage to the local economy.”

Condon is more hesitant about a nationwide program. It would have to be organized carefully, she said, with a way to guard against applicants who aren’t serious about their education.

“If we’re emphasizing, ‘Oh, go to college, you can get a check,’ we might have a humongous increase in enrollment,” she said. “But if we’re not retaining those students, we’re defeating the purpose.”

2016 Election
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Amanda Condon
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Amanda Condon, who received scholarship aid every semester, receives her diploma.

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Jack Grove for Times Higher Education

Many academics are not accepting offers for British university jobs until they know the result of next month’s European Union referendum, the president of Universities UK has warned.

Julia Goodfellow, vice chancellor of the University of Kent, said her institution had been told by several successful applicants from continental Europe that they wanted to know that the U.K. would remain in the E.U. before taking up a post.

“We offered one person a job, but he said he wanted to wait until after the referendum before making a decision on accepting,” said Goodfellow in an interview with Times Higher Education.

Young scientists and other early-career academics from E.U. countries had been particularly affected by the uncertainty around the referendum, as they were making decisions about where their careers and families would be based in the medium term, Goodfellow explained.

These highly skilled academics would face years of uncertainty while negotiations over their status in Britain took place if the country voted to leave the E.U., she said.

“Some postdocs and researchers from European research organizations will not come because this is a very critical time in their career,” said Goodfellow, suggesting that they would opt for countries where their long-term future was more assured.

Her own university would be particularly affected by a Brexit vote, as some 22 percent of its academic staff are non-British, she said.

In a keynote speech at the annual conference of Universities Human Resources, which was held in Brighton this month, Goodfellow said universities have been especially quick to support Universities UK’s Universities for Europe campaign.

Referring to an association letter extolling the benefits of the E.U. to academe, Goodfellow told an audience, “One hundred and three vice chancellors agreed to sign the letter within three hours of it going out.”

She explained that universities are now ramping up their efforts to ensure that students are registered to vote by June 7, ahead of the June 23 referendum. “Lots of them are now just finishing exams and only just realizing they need to register to vote.”

Global
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Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Matt Reed

Community colleges as relevant to all.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By John Warner

Let’s hope they take good care of it.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Joshua Kim

Learning from dead malls and big malls.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Eric Stoller

Teaching and development.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Jordan Reed and Leanne Horinko

How to coordinate a successful event.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Rosemarie Emanuele

Valuable time.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Jake New

Baylor University’s Board of Regents has fired its head football coach, and its president will soon resign, amid allegations that the world’s largest Baptist university has continuously mishandled — and sought to suppress public discourse about — sexual assaults committed by its football players and other students.

The president, Kenneth Starr, will remain at the university as its chancellor and a law professor, though the terms of the arrangement are still being discussed. In a statement released Thursday, Baylor admitted that the university mishandled a number of reports of sexual violence and that coaches and staff reinforced a perception that football was above the rules.

“We were horrified by the extent of these acts of sexual violence on our campus,” said Richard Willis, chair of the Baylor Board of Regents. “This investigation revealed the university’s mishandling of reports in what should have been a supportive, responsive and caring environment for students. The depth to which these acts occurred shocked and outraged us. Our students and their families deserve more, and we have committed our full attention to improving our processes, establishing accountability and ensuring appropriate actions are taken to support former, current and future students.”

Earlier this month, Pepper Hamilton, a law firm the university hired to investigate how it has handled allegations of sexual assault, presented a lengthy oral report to the board summarizing its findings. The report placed blame for the mishandling of several sexual assault cases on the university’s president and other administrators, and the board urged Starr to resign this week.

The university on Thursday released its “findings of fact” from the Pepper Hamilton investigation.

“Pepper found that Baylor’s efforts to implement Title IX were slow, ad hoc, and hindered by a lack of institutional support and engagement by senior leadership,” the statement said. “Pepper found that the university’s student conduct processes were wholly inadequate to consistently provide a prompt and equitable response under Title IX, that Baylor failed to consistently support complainants through the provision of interim measures, and that in some cases, the university failed to take action to identify and eliminate a potential hostile environment, prevent its recurrence, or address its effects for individual complainants or the broader campus community.”

The statement said that the firm “found examples of actions by university administrators that directly discouraged complainants from reporting or participating in student conduct processes, or that contributed to or accommodated a hostile environment.” In one instance, the university said, “those actions constituted retaliation against a complainant for reporting sexual assault.”

The findings also cited “specific failings within both the football program and Athletics Department leadership, including a failure to identify and respond to a pattern of sexual violence by a football player, to take action in response to reports of a sexual assault by multiple football players, and to take action in response to a report of dating violence.”

The head football coach, Art Briles, and the university’s athletics director, Ian McCaw, were singled out in Pepper Hamilton’s verbal report presented to the Board of Regents earlier this month, with sources saying the board considered them to be “on the chopping block.” Briles on Thursday was suspended “with intent to terminate,” the university said. McCaw was placed on probation by the board, but not fired. Other athletic officials and administrators were also fired or sanction, as well, the board members said in a media call Thursday, though they declined to say how many.

A full report based on Pepper Hamilton’s findings is expected to be released in the fall.

The university’s summary released Thursday noted that there were several instances in which “football coaches or staff met directly with a complainant and/or parent of a complainant and did not report the misconduct.” The football program, the summary stated, operated its own “internal system of discipline,” that “resulted in conduct being ignored or players being dismissed from the team based on an informal and subjective process.”

According to sources familiar with the investigation, Pepper Hamilton found that Starr, as president, encouraged a culture of second chances, while providing little oversight to the athletic department and the football team, and failed to move the university toward complying with Title IX, the federal antidiscrimination law that dictates how colleges should investigate and adjudicate cases of campus sexual assault.

Baylor hired its first full-time Title IX coordinator in November 2014, three years after the U.S. Department of Education told colleges to do so. Prior to that, the coordinator position was assigned to various senior administrators, the investigation found, “each of whom already had a full profile of professional responsibilities” and who lacked the necessary training. When Baylor did finally hire a Title IX coordinator, the university “underestimated the level of infrastructure and resources” the office would need.

In a statement Thursday, Starr apologized “to those victims who were not treated with care, concern, and support they deserve,” but added that he was not aware of “any of the allegations regarding interpersonal violence” until 2015, at which point he recommended the board commission an external investigation.

“To be sure, this has been an exceedingly difficult time for the university family, especially so for the victims of sexual violence and their loved ones,” Starr said.

‘Win Some Football Games’

Starr is a renowned judge and lawyer, having argued nearly 40 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court and served as independent counsel during the investigation that led to the impeachment of President Bill Clinton. Starr became president of Baylor in 2010. When Starr first took the job, he said last year, he visited Fred Cameron, a prominent lawyer and former member of the university’s board, and asked him for advice.

“Win some football games,” Cameron replied.

Starr took the advice to heart and threatened legal action against the Southeastern Conference and Texas A&M University when that university decided to leave the Big 12 Conference, a move that many at the university feared would break up the league and leave Baylor without a big-time conference home. Texas A&M ultimately bolted for the wealthier SEC, but Starr’s threats are credited with helping give some of the other waffling Big 12 teams enough pause that they decided to remain with the league.

In 2010, Briles led the team to the Texas Bowl, finishing off the Bears’ first winning season in 15 years. A stream of successes followed, culminating in the construction of a new $266 million stadium to house the team.

The success and higher profile of the football program have, university officials assert, helped Baylor raise $400 million since 2012 to support a flurry of construction and other projects around campus, including a new building to house the business school and a $100 million scholarship initiative.

“As we would say in Christendom, it’s like an early rapture,” a member of Baylor board said in 2012. “We spent 40 years wandering the wilderness. I hope this is our exit.”

The rise in stature of Baylor’s football program under Briles and Starr is frequently described as “meteoric,” though it also concerned some on campus, who worried that a university so focused on football could lose sight of its Baptist and academic mission.

In 2012, a Baylor linebacker was arrested and later convicted of sexual assault. At the player’s trial, other witnesses said he had raped them as well. The victim in that trial is now suing the university, alleging that officials already knew of at least some of the other assaults committed by the player.

In 2013, Samuel Ukwuachu — then a freshman all-American at Boise State University — was dismissed from that university’s football team for “violating team rules” after a drunken dispute with his then girlfriend ended with the player putting his fist through a window. The woman later alleged that Ukwuachu hit and choked her. Just weeks after he was dismissed, Ukwuachu transferred to Baylor to play football there.

That October, Waco police received a call saying that Ukwuachu had sexually assaulted a fellow student. The victim, a soccer player at Baylor, testified that she screamed “no” as Ukwuachu raped her in his apartment after homecoming.

In June 2014, Ukwuachu — who still had not played a game at Baylor — was indicted by a grand jury on two counts of sexually assaulting the female student. Even then, the football team’s defensive coordinator said he expected Ukwuachu to play that fall. Ukwuachu was found guilty of sexual assault last August. He was sentenced to six months in jail and 10 years on probation.

Sexual assault is a famously underprosecuted crime, yet not only did local law enforcement officials move forward with the case, they successfully charged and convicted Ukwuachu. Meanwhile, according to a Baylor official who testified during the trial, the university never held a campus hearing because there was not enough evidence to move forward. In August 2015, Texas Monthly published an article raising questions about whether Baylor officials knew of Ukwuachu’s previous violent behavior.

Over the next several months, ESPN published a series of reports detailing a number of other sexual and physical assaults seemingly kept quiet by the university and committed mostly by football players. In one case a female student said she was twice physically assaulted by a Baylor football player. In another, a woman told police a football player threw her against a wall.

In a 2011 assault case involving two football players, according to ESPN, local police pulled the case “from a computer system so that only persons who had a reason to inquire about the report” would be able to find it.

The rape allegations are not limited to the football team. Earlier this month, the Waco Tribune-Herald reported that a Baylor tennis player is also under investigation for sexual assault and that a Baylor fraternity president was indicted on four counts of sexual assault after an incident in February. Earlier this year, a Baylor student named Stefanie Mundhenk published a widely-shared blog post about her own experiences being raped and reporting the assault to the university.

“I’m tired of a Christian university not having a passion for the hurting, and covering it up to maintain a glossy image,” Mundhenk wrote.

Second Chances

The news that the board was ousting Starr this week prompted nearly 2,000 people, mostly Baylor alumni, to sign a petition demanding that he remain president. Vincent Harris, the Baylor graduate who created the petition, said by asking for Starr’s resignation, the Board of Regents was just “removing the easiest scapegoat.” Some who signed the petition also defended Briles.

“I want to say that college football is a sport of second chances,” one alumnus wrote. “I hope this scandal at Baylor University does not change that. For every football player that uses a second chance to commit assault, there are 500 other players using their second chances to become responsible men.”

While another signee noted that Christianity also values second chances, legal experts and victims advocates argue that the concept is not the safest way to prevent sexual assault from occurring on campus.

In 2007, a former student received six-figure settlement from the University of Georgia after she was raped by a football player who had been previously dismissed from a community college where he had sexually assaulted two women. In 2009, the Arizona Board of Regents agreed to pay a former Arizona State University student $850,000 after she was raped by a football player the university had already expelled once for groping and exposing himself to women. The student had returned to campus at the request of a coach, and then raped the woman in her dorm room.

Those lawsuits haven’t stopped some institutions from continuing to bring or keep players with troubled pasts on their teams.

In August, a former Vanderbilt University football player who was charged with five counts of aggravated rape transferred to play football at Lane College. Another player allegedly involved in that same case transferred to Alcorn State University, a team that already included a registered sex offender.

The University of Oregon faced a lawsuit last year when it allowed an athlete to play for its basketball team after he was previously accused of sexual assault at Providence College. The player was then suspended from Oregon after he allegedly assaulted a female student there. He has since transferred to yet another institution. Two other players who were also suspended for their alleged involvement in the Oregon assault have transferred to play basketball elsewhere.

Last season, the University of Oklahoma’s football roster included a player who was charged in 2014 with punching a woman and breaking four bones in her face. In defending his decision to keep the player on the team, Bob Stoops, Oklahoma’s head football coach, espoused the importance of second chances.

“Second chances appeal to our sense of fairness and justice,” Dionne Koller, director of the Center of Sport and Law at the University of Baltimore, said. “The problem with the ‘second chance,’ as it is commonly used in sports programs, and was seemingly used at Baylor, is that it appears to be more about privileging and protecting those in power, and not about promoting greater justice. A culture of ‘second chances’ where issues this serious are going on is really about avoiding bringing those responsible to justice. In this sense, the ‘second chance’ sends a message of entitlement — that those in the athletic power structure are above the rules.”

Students and Violence
Editorial Tags:
Image Caption:
Kenneth Starr

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Jake New

Baylor University’s Board of Regents has fired its head football coach, and its president will soon resign, amid allegations that the world’s largest Baptist university has continuously mishandled — and sought to suppress public discourse about — sexual assaults committed by its football players and other students.

The president, Kenneth Starr, will remain at the university as its chancellor and a law professor.

A statement released Thursday — in a reversal of previous Baylor’s defense of the institution’s conduct — admitted that the university mishandled a number of reports of sexual violence.

“We were horrified by the extent of these acts of sexual violence on our campus. This investigation revealed the university’s mishandling of reports in what should have been a supportive, responsive and caring environment for students,” said Richard Willis, chair of the Baylor Board of Regents. “The depth to which these acts occurred shocked and outraged us. Our students and their families deserve more, and we have committed our full attention to improving our processes, establishing accountability and ensuring appropriate actions are taken to support former, current and future students.”

Earlier this month, Pepper Hamilton, a law firm the university hired to investigate how it has handled allegations of sexual assault, presented a lengthy oral report to the board summarizing its findings. The report placed blame for the mishandling of several sexual assault cases on the university’s president, Kenneth Starr, and the board urged him to resign earlier this week.

The university on Thursday also released its “findings of fact” from the Pepper Hamilton investigation.

“Pepper found that Baylor’s efforts to implement Title IX were slow, ad hoc, and hindered by a lack of institutional support and engagement by senior leadership. Based on a high-level audit of all reports of sexual harassment or violence for three academic years from 2012-2013 through 2014-2015, Pepper found that the university’s student conduct processes were wholly inadequate to consistently provide a prompt and equitable response under Title IX, that Baylor failed to consistently support complainants through the provision of interim measures, and that in some cases, the university failed to take action to identify and eliminate a potential hostile environment, prevent its recurrence, or address its effects for individual complainants or the broader campus community,” the statement said. “Pepper also found examples of actions by university administrators that directly discouraged complainants from reporting or participating in student conduct processes, or that contributed to or accommodated a hostile environment. In one instance, those actions constituted retaliation against a complainant for reporting sexual assault.”

The findings also cited “specific failings within both the football program and Athletics Department leadership, including a failure to identify and respond to a pattern of sexual violence by a football player, to take action in response to reports of a sexual assault by multiple football players, and to take action in response to a report of dating violence. Pepper’s findings also reflect significant concerns about the tone and culture within Baylor’s football program as it relates to accountability for all forms of athlete misconduct.”

The university’s head football coach, Art Briles, and the university’s athletic director, Ian McCaw, were also singled out in the verbal report, with sources saying the board considered them to be “on the chopping block.” McCaw will be disciplined by the board, but not fired. A full report based on the firm’s findings is expected to be released in the fall.

According to sources familiar with the investigation, Pepper Hamilton found that Starr encouraged a culture of second chances, while providing little oversight to the athletic department and the football team, and failed “to provide consistent and meaningful engagement with Title IX,” the federal antidiscrimination law that dictates how colleges should investigate and adjudicate cases of campus sexual assault.

Baylor hired its first full-time Title IX coordinator in November 2014, three years after the U.S. Department of Education told colleges to do so.

Starr is a renowned judge and lawyer, having argued nearly 40 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court and served as independent counsel during the investigation that led to the impeachment of President Bill Clinton. Starr became president of Baylor in 2010, and immediately prioritized the success of the football team.

That same year, Briles led the team to the Texas Bowl, finishing off the Bears’ first winning season in 15 years. A stream of successes followed, culminating in the construction of a new $266 million stadium to house the team.

The success and higher profile of the football program have, university officials assert, helped Baylor raise $400 million since 2012 to support a flurry of construction and other projects around campus, including a new building to house the business school and a $100 million scholarship initiative.

The rise in stature of Baylor’s football program under Briles and Starr is frequently described as “meteoric,” though it also has concerned some on campus, who worry that a university so focused on football could lose sight of its Baptist and academic mission.

In 2012, a Baylor linebacker was arrested and later convicted of sexual assault. At the player’s trial, other witnesses said he had raped them as well. The victim in that trial is now suing the university, alleging officials already knew of at least some of the other assaults committed by the player.

In 2013, Samuel Ukwuachu — then a freshman all-American at Boise State University — was dismissed from that university’s football team for “violating team rules” after a drunken dispute with his then girlfriend ended with the player putting his fist through a window. The woman later alleged that Ukwuachu hit and choked her. Just weeks after he was dismissed, Ukwuachu transferred to Baylor to play football there.

That October, Waco police received a call saying that Ukwuachu had sexually assaulted a fellow student. The victim, a soccer player at Baylor, testified that she screamed “no” as Ukwuachu raped her in his apartment after homecoming.

In June 2014, Ukwuachu — who still had not played a game at Baylor — was indicted by a grand jury on two counts of sexually assaulting the female student. Even then, the football team’s defensive coordinator said he expected Ukwuachu to play that fall. Ukwuachu was found guilty of sexual assault last August. He was sentenced to six months in jail and 10 years on probation.

Sexual assault is a famously underprosecuted crime, yet not only did local law enforcement officials move forward with the case, they successfully charged and convicted Ukwuachu. Meanwhile, according to a Baylor official who testified during the trial, the university never held a campus hearing because there was not enough evidence to move forward. In August 2015, Texas Monthly published an article raising questions about whether Baylor officials knew of Ukwuachu’s previous violent behavior.

Over the next several months, ESPN published a series of reports detailing a number of other sexual and physical assaults seemingly kept quiet by the university and committed mostly by football players. In one case a female student said she was twice physically assaulted by a Baylor football player. In another, a woman told police a football player threw her against a wall.

The rape allegations are not limited to the football team. In a 2011 assault case involving two football players, according to ESPN, local police pulled the case “from a computer system so that only persons who had a reason to inquire about the report” would be able to find it. In all, at least five football players have been accused of assault since Starr became president.

Earlier this month, the Waco Tribune-Herald reported that a Baylor tennis player is also under investigation for sexual assault and that a Baylor fraternity president was indicted on four counts of sexual assault after an incident in February.

The news that the board was ousting Starr this week prompted more than 1,700 people, mostly Baylor alumni, to sign a petition demanding that he remain president. Vincent Harris, the Baylor graduate who created the petition, said the Board of Regents was using Starr as a scapegoat.

“Everyone wants the same thing for our beloved Baylor University: to be a campus free from sexual assault and mistreatment,” Harris wrote in the Texas Tribune. “But we need to pause, step back and make decisions based on facts instead of acting like a mob or mimicking the actions of the Queen of Hearts from Alice in Wonderland. Serious decisions such as who leads our university should not be made based upon sensational media headlines, undocumented whispers or appeasing a vocal minority by removing the easiest scapegoat.”

Students and Violence
Editorial Tags:
Image Caption:
Kenneth Starr

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Rick Seltzer

Indiana University on Wednesday challenged a new state abortion law in federal court, arguing it restricts academic freedom by criminalizing the acquisition or transfer of fetal tissue used for research.

The move stands out because the university is challenging the actions of the state that supports it. The dispute also comes at a time when many state and federal legislators are proposing laws to curtail abortion. And it arrives as lawmakers scrutinize fetal tissue research in the wake of a series of controversial videos released in 2015 showing Planned Parenthood officials discussing the use of fetal tissue.

The Indiana law in question was approved as House Bill 1337 in March, and it goes into effect at the beginning of July. Its provisions include requiring miscarried and aborted fetuses to be buried or cremated. Other parts of the law prohibit individuals from acquiring, receiving, selling or transferring fetal tissue. It makes the transfer or collection of fetal tissue a felony punishable by up to six years in prison.

Supporters of the law have argued it is a moral move affirming the value of human life. But IU leaders claim it leaves the university in an untenable position. The university legally obtained fetal tissue for important research, they said. Yet the law would leave it trapped with that tissue and unable to transfer it, putting its researchers at legal risk.

The law would also prohibit any researchers from obtaining additional fetal tissue for future needs.

Indiana is arguing the law is unconstitutionally vague and burdensome. The university’s complaint also said the law violates the First Amendment academic freedom rights of Debomoy Lahiri, a professor of psychiatry and a primary investigator for its Stark Neurosciences Research Institute in Indianapolis. IU and Lahiri conduct Alzheimer’s disease research using mixed cell cultures and components like RNA and DNA derived from fetal tissue.

Their projects include research funded by the National Institutes of Health, which requires researchers to retain samples they use, IU said in its complaint. The NIH requires researchers to share those samples upon request so that their work can be verified. But that would mean transferring fetal material, making it impossible for IU to comply with both the new law and NIH regulations, the university said.

IU received $187 million last year in NIH research grants but does not know the exact value of grants that involve fetal tissue. The law could force the university to refund millions of dollars from those grants, IU’s complaint stated. The university also objected to the possibility of its researchers being prosecuted.

“Even were Dr. Lahiri to stop doing his research in the state of Indiana as a result of the enrolled act, he runs the risk that the mere act of transferring his research to another institution would constitute a felony,” the university’s suit said.

IU also argued that it is unable to determine which of its research activities are prohibited by the new Indiana law. The university has some biologics that have been stored frozen for years, and it would be impossible to determine if they were derived from fetal tissue, it said in its complaint. Further, the university argued the new law could slow the pace of research, prevent breakthroughs and dissuade researchers from coming to Indiana.

“We don’t do research just for the hell of it,” said Fred Cate, IU’s vice president for research.

“We do new research because it leads to new discoveries and creations, which benefit peoples’ lives,” Cate said. “If we are told by state law that we cannot use certain tools in that research, tools that are widely used in every other state, that are professionally acceptable, that are ethically acceptable, then we are hurting the people of the state of Indiana. We’re hurting the people who benefit from this research, and we’re hurting the people who do that research.”

The fetal tissue used in IU research is received from the Birth Defects Laboratory at the University of Washington, according to its lawsuit. Such tissue comes from abortions and miscarriages.

IU filed its request for an injunction the day after a federal judge said it could not intervene in another complaint filed last month by Planned Parenthood of Indiana and Kentucky. U.S. Magistrate Judge Debra McVicker Lynch denied the university’s request to join that complaint on the grounds that it raised issues separate from Planned Parenthood’s case. But she also invited IU to file its own lawsuit.

The move to challenge the law is unusual, acknowledged Margie Smith-Simmons, an IU spokeswoman.

“By challenging portions of Indiana House Enrolled Act 1337, Indiana University is taking an extremely rare stance, and one the university would prefer not to take,” she said in the statement. “But the university felt compelled to do this in an effort to protect its researchers from criminal prosecution, to protect the research enterprise as a whole and to protect the research that has the potential to save thousands of lives, if not more.”

The legislation’s author, Republican Representative Casey Cox, declined a request to comment through an Indiana House Republican Caucus spokeswoman. Indiana Governor Mike Pence did not immediately return a request for comment.

But Pence, a Republican, praised the act when he signed it. The governor called the legislation a “comprehensive pro-life measure that affirms the value of all human life.” The act contains a number of provisions focused on abortion but not directly on fetal tissue. It prohibits performing an abortion if a provider knows a woman is seeking the procedure solely because of a fetus’s ethnicity or sex, or because a fetus could be diagnosed with a disability.

“I believe that a society can be judged by how it deals with its most vulnerable — the aged, the infirm, the disabled and the unborn,” Pence said in a statement in March. “HEA 1337 will ensure the dignified final treatment of the unborn and prohibits abortions that are based only on the unborn child’s sex, race, color, national origin, ancestry or disability, including Down syndrome.”

The conflict in Indiana comes as national university groups have pushed back against the tone of debate surrounding fetal tissue research. The Association of American Medical Colleges, Association of American Universities and Association of Public and Land-Grant Universities sent a letter at the end of March to the U.S. House of Representatives’ Select Investigative Panel on Infant Lives expressing concern over reports that the panel planned to subpoena researchers, graduate students and others involved in research linked to human fetal tissue.

“Many scientists and physicians are deeply concerned for their safety and that of their patients, colleagues and students in light of inflammatory statements and reports surrounding fetal tissue donation,” the letter said. “We are troubled that this information is being sought without any rules or process in place to govern how the panel will use and protect personally identifiable and other sensitive information.”

Legislative efforts could be beginning to have an impact on research across the country, said Jennifer Poulakidas, vice president of congressional and governmental affairs for the Association of Public and Land-grant Universities. This type of law can dissuade researchers from working with fetal tissue, she said. Statutes in particular states can push researchers to work in other states, she added.

Broadly, the Indiana law demonstrates the tensions that can be present between universities and legislators.

“Generally speaking, universities don’t like to see any type of research be blocked or banned or have unnecessary restrictions imposed,” Poulakidas said. “This is research that has always been legal. And these sort of state-by-state restrictions are definitely curbing institutions’ ability to participate in this research.”

Academic Freedom
Editorial Tags:
Image Caption:
Indiana University’s Stark Neurosciences Research Institute

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Anonymous

A Q&A with Jay Baer

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Ashley A. Smith

Community colleges have known for years now that placement tests alone aren’t a great measure for determining the skills of incoming students.

So more colleges are using multiple measures for placement, such as students’ high school grade point averages or scores on college entrance exams. But even that comes with challenges, as colleges decide which measures carry the most weight and what to do for students who may not have those additional measurements.

“Any single test isn’t going to be predictive [of student success], but the advantage of having other measures is you have various ways to get placed out of developmental education,” said Elisabeth Barnett, a senior research associate at the Community College Research Center at Columbia University’s Teachers College.

There are various ways colleges are seeking to use multiple measures to place students. Some use a hierarchy, such as ranking GPAs or SAT exam scores. Others have created algorithms to determine student success based on a mix of measures.

“Quite a lot of colleges are going this direction, in part because COMPASS is going away,” Barnett said, referring to the placement exam from ACT.

The GPA method is still the preferred option in addition to placement tests. And a recently released study from the Center for Community College Student Engagement highlights the inadequacy of relying solely on placement tests, by finding that many students may have been placed in developmental courses erroneously.

The report found that 40 percent of students self-reported needing a developmental course in at least one area after taking a placement test, despite achieving the equivalent of at least an A-minus GPA in high school.

“This points out that multiple measures would be a better tool for placement, and if this were the case, then perhaps these students would not have been placed in developmental education at all,” said Evelyn Waiwaiole, CCCSE’s director, in an email.

Davidson County Community College in North Carolina began using multiple measurements for placement three years ago, after the state’s board of community colleges approved of a new incoming student policy. The college uses a hierarchy of measures that first takes into account a student’s GPA. If a high school graduate doesn’t meet the GPA and transcript criteria, then he or she can use college entrance exams like the ACT or the SAT to demonstrate placement into credit-bearing, nondevelopmental courses. In addition, students can use previous college credit to bypass remediation. Davidson uses placement tests as a last resort if a student doesn’t have any of the above.

“The test we were using to place students was flawed. It was a high-stakes test,” said Susan Burleson, vice president of student success and communications at Davidson, adding that what it really measured was how students performed on a single day and whether or not they had recently prepared for the exam.

But the switch to using GPAs also caused controversy in the state, Burleson said, partially because there are concerns about the equivalency of a GPA from one high school versus another.

In the end, the level of prior academic preparation a student received in high school or the quality of their teachers didn’t matter, Burleson said, because the data behind their GPA told the same story.

And using high school grades isn’t an exact science. Colleges and states still have to decide what GPA will stand as a cut score. For example, North Carolina uses a 2.6 GPA as the barrier between placement in gateway or developmental courses, Barnett said.

Another challenge, said Pam Eddinger, president of Boston’s Bunker Hill Community College, is that recent high school graduates often arrive at the city’s largest two-year institution without a GPA. So recently Boston Public Schools and Bunker Hill agreed to a data-sharing agreement and are aligning their curricula so students can take developmental courses before they enter college.

Much of what colleges know isn’t based on rigorous research, but on trends, Barnett said. For example, Long Beach City College is using an assessment algorithm that weighs students’ high school achievement and scores on a standardized assessment to predict performance.

The algorithm method is more complicated, but it is helpful because high school GPAs often are not readily available, she said, adding that the North Carolina system is straightforward and easy to replicate with limited training.

“The bottom line is that high school GPA is a better predictor than anything else,” said Barnett. “It’s not really a single measure. It’s a compilation of course grades over time.”

Community Colleges
Image Caption:
Davidson County Community College

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Ellen Wexler

Sitting on the stage at DePaul University Tuesday, Milo Yiannopoulos spoke without incident for around 15 minutes, offering his trademark inflammatory criticisms of feminism, the transgender rights movement and campus politics. And then the conversation turned to microaggressions.

“They’re called microaggressions because you can’t even see them,” Yiannopoulos, a pundit at the conservative website Breitbart.com, told the crowd. “And the reason you can’t see them is because they’re not there. Nothing happens.”

Which is when something happened: blowing a whistle, a student walked down the center aisle of the auditorium until he reached the stage. He sat on the table between Yiannopoulos and a student from the College Republicans, who was moderating the event, and began speaking to the crowd.

“Please, sir,” tried the student moderator. “Sir, please.”

“We’d like to ask you to please — ” began another.

But a second student had joined the first on stage, and at once, the event became a protest.

It wasn’t the first time college students protested Yiannopoulos. He is a divisive figure. He is, as a writer for Fusion put it, “the sort of frustrating troll who, for instance, might declare his birthday World Patriarchy Day, suggest Donald Trump is ‘blacker’ than Barack Obama or, although he is gay himself, assert that gay rights have ‘made us dumber.’”

Those protesting at DePaul — in a rally outside and during the disruption — said Yiannopoulos was engaged in hate speech that made minority and other students feel unsafe and unwelcome at their own institution. They argued that Yiannopoulos shouldn’t have been invited.

The DePaul protesters grew in ranks, and the College Republicans who organized the talk were unable to regain control of the event. The event was cut short.

For free speech advocates on both sides of the political spectrum, the event was fraught with tension: What happens when a protest prevents an event from taking place and blocks ideas from being heard?

DePaul’s president, the Reverend Dennis Holtschneider, was out of town during the event, but was briefed on it.

“Generally, I do not respond to speakers of Mr. Yiannopoulos’s ilk, as I believe they are more entertainers and self-serving provocateurs than the public intellectuals they purport to be,” he said in a statement.

And yet: “Those who interrupted the speech were wrong to do so,” he continued. “Universities welcome speakers, give their ideas a respectful hearing and then respond with additional speech countering the ideas.”

Speech and Safety

Six days before Yiannopoulos’s speech, a group of Jewish students at the University of California at Irvine gathered for a film screening. Called Beneath the Helmet, the film documents the lives of five Israeli soldiers.

In the middle of screening, a group of student protesters appeared outside the classroom door.

“This was not a peaceful demonstration,” said Lisa Armony, executive director of Hillel Orange County. “This was an angry, screaming, large group of people trying to get into a room of students sitting and watching a movie.”

Armony called the police.

So did one of the students who had been watching the film and who had gone into the hall to make a phone call before the protesters showed up. “She got scared and tried to get back into the room to be with us,” Armony said, “and they wouldn’t let her in.” According to Armony, the student hid in a nearby classroom until she felt it was safe.

After police arrived, the group finished the film. According to Hillel Orange County, one police officer remained in the room until the film was over, at which point police officers escorted the students to their cars.

Law enforcement officials and student affairs officials are conducting two parallel investigations. If the administration concludes that the protesters did disrupt the screening, they will be disciplined.

“We are not in the business of allowing folks to disrupt events,” said Thomas Parham, UC Irvine’s vice chancellor for student affairs. “We do not approve of free speech that seeks to shut down anyone else’s right to free speech.”

The Irvine chapter of Students for Justice in Palestine posted a note on its Facebook page that expressed pride in the protest but did not address the criticisms. “Today we successfully demonstrated against the presence of IDF soldiers on campus. We condemn the Israeli ‘Defense’ Forces, better defined as Israeli Occupation Forces (IOF), because they enforce Zionist settler colonialism and military occupation of Palestinian land by the Israeli nation-state,” the statement said. “Not only does the IOF commit murders and several violences against the Palestinian people, including its use of Gaza as a laboratory for weapons testing, but it enforces militarization and policing all over the world. The United States send [sic] delegations of police forces to train in Israel by the IOF, such as the LAPD and NYPD for example. The presence of IDF and police threatened our coalition of Arab, black, undocumented, trans and the greater activist community. Thank you to all that came out and bravely spoke out against injustice.”

The group has since posted a longer statement in which it says that actions that make minority or pro-Palestinian students feel unsafe are ignored, unlike the speedy reaction to the complaints last week. “In talking about providing a safe environment for all students on campus, administration’s double standards must be acknowledged,” the statement said.

Jewish groups on campus had been holding a series of events that week. Administrators had anticipated some dissent, and they created a space near the events for protesting students to use. But according to Parham, the film screening was moved on campus at the last minute. If the administration had known about the event, it would have put proper security measures in place.

Predicting Protest

Shutting down a protest is tricky. When college authorities act too quickly, they infringe on the rights of peaceful demonstrators who are doing exactly what they’re taught to do, in these cases voicing peaceful opposition to a conservative writer or Israel’s treatment of the Palestinians. Even the sponsors of the events say that protests outside — however strong the language used — would have been a different matter.

“We’ve seen protests against events that were completely nondisruptive shut down inappropriately,” said Ari Cohn, a free speech lawyer at the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education. “But if those protests are disruptive to the extent where the students they are protesting against are not able to carry out their event, that’s when the university has to step in.”

Kevin Kruger, president of NASPA: Student Affairs Professionals in Higher Education, said colleges should try to anticipate in advance whether an event or speaker might provoke a strong reaction. But still, that kind of anticipation is easier said than done.

“You can’t always predict what’s going to happen,” he said. “It could start out as peaceful and become violent.”

But when student groups need more security, who pays for it? At UC Irvine, the Jewish groups did not have to pay for the extra security. But at DePaul, the College Republicans and Breitbart were required to contribute.

Now, Breitbart is demanding its money back. After paying the required fee, the organization is angry that security officials didn’t do more.

Cohn disagrees with any requirement that campus groups pay for security. While they aren’t required to provide the security themselves, he said, “colleges should not charge student groups for protecting themselves because somebody might protest at their event.”

Others say if nobody has an obligation to pay for security, students will be left in vulnerable situations.

“If we know that a certain speaker or event might increase the likelihood of some kind of violence, I think it’s reasonable to ask the sponsors to underwrite some of the security at that event,” Kruger said. “That’s been happening for decades.”

At DePaul, the College Republicans haven’t yet decided whether to reschedule the event, according to club member Benjamin Cohen. But going forward, they hope the university improves its policies. At UC Irvine, pro-Israel groups are trying to bring the film back to campus.

“The best thing we can see from the school as a response to this is a policy and commitment on the school’s end, from now going forward, that the school will take an active role in ensuring that events are allowed to proceed,” Cohen said.

Editorial Tags:

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Doug Lederman

The University of Akron’s decision last year to hire a local company to supplement its student advising and mentoring staff seemed ill-fated to many observers. The company, Trust Navigator, had no other higher ed customers, and the move came soon after the university eliminated numerous positions in its student success division. And the $840,000 price tag seemed high for a university that was struggling with enrollments and revenue.

So Wednesday’s announcement by the university that it would not extend the one-year contract with Trust Navigator may surprise few people.

A statement provided by the university said that a review showed the experiment with Trust Navigator’s “success coaches” did not produce “an appreciable difference in the fall-to-spring retention rate for students” compared to the previous year without them. An Akron spokesperson said in an interview that fall-to-spring retention was “essentially flat” from the year before.

“Based on that review and with input from our academic leadership and student success teams and the Faculty Senate, we have decided to allow this contract to expire at the end of June,” said the statement.

The statement implied that constrained finances contributed to the decision, as enrollment of new freshmen at Akron for next fall could be down by as much as a quarter from last year, based on data that show 23 percent fewer freshmen having paid a confirmation fee (like a deposit) compared to this time last year.

Akron’s decision to hire Trust Navigator was embroiled in controversy from the very start. It was announced at the same Board of Trustees meeting at which the university said it would eliminate 215 nonfaculty jobs, including dozens in the student success division.

Critics also questioned the selection process the university used to choose the unproven start-up, which had no other university clients then and, according to an article in Cleveland.com, still doesn’t.

Rob Reho, chief operating officer for Trust Navigator, told the website that university officials described the contract nonrenewal as a “budget decision.”

“We are sad because we think we made a viable impact and helped students like we were supposed to do,” Reho told Cleveland.com. “We did a lot of things outside the scope of the contract and felt we were true business partners. But we respect the decision of the university.”

Admissions
Editorial Tags:

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Joshua Kim

Sociology -> Technology -> Learning -> Organizations -> Organizational Change

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Laura Tropp

A personal summary.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Ross Cooper

A closeup of the back of a Mac laptop showing the apple icon and a green sticker of a screwdriver that says, "Craft" in white lettering.
Ross Cooper
One school district spent a year working with 15 teachers to determine the conditions needed to identify, create, and promote the scaling of classroom innovations.

Source: Edutopia

    

By Carl Straumsheim

The University of Florida and Elsevier are unveiling a project to connect the institution’s repository of scholarly works to the larger network of publishing platforms, giving users a portal through which they can explore tens of thousands of articles by the university’s authors.

Researchers at UF publish around 8,000 scholarly articles a year, and about a quarter of them appear in the top 10 percent of the most cited journals. Elsevier’s journals are the most popular destination; about 1,100 articles appear in the publisher’s journals, and they generate more citations than articles published elsewhere, on average.

Yet with all that research output, UF hasn’t had a culture of authors depositing their articles in its institutional repository, said Judith C. Russell, dean of university libraries at UF. The repository collects research and disseminates it free, but while graduate students might deposit their dissertations, anyone looking for research published in scholarly journals has had to look elsewhere. In fact, until this year, the Institutional Repository at the University of Florida, known as IR@UF, contained just seven articles that appeared in journals published by Elsevier, she said.

How research by UF authors is cited. (Source: Elsevier)

As more funding agencies — most notably the federal government — require that researchers make their work accessible to the public, many universities are looking for ways to ensure they are in compliance. During conversations with administrators and faculty members, Russell said she saw an opportunity for the library to tackle that challenge. More broadly, she said, they voiced an interest in the library aggregating scholarship by UF authors, making it discoverable to researchers and showcasing it more broadly.

Doing so, however, would require collecting information about tens of thousands of scholarly articles. As the university debated its options, Russell said, one major problem emerged: “How do we do this in a manner that accomplishes those objectives but doesn’t put additional demands on the time of faculty?” she said.

The university believes automation is the answer. Last week, UF announced a first-of-its-kind pilot to link the repository with ScienceDirect, Elsevier’s online journal and ebook catalog. Instead of filling the repository with tens of thousands of journal articles, the university is using application programming interfaces (APIs) to search ScienceDirect on a regular basis for new articles published by UF researchers. The repository stores the metadata gathered from those searches, presenting it as though the researchers themselves took the time to type up and submit the articles’ titles, collaborators, time of publication and more.

When researchers now browse the repository, they’ll find links to more than 31,000 articles that appeared in Elsevier’s journals, the oldest dating to 1949. As long as they or the institutions they are affiliated with subscribe to those journals, they can read the article as it appeared in print (open-access articles are of course readable by anyone).

“The nice thing about this pilot is it opens up the repository,” said Alicia Wise, Elsevier’s director of access and policy. “Rather than being the end destination, it’s part of the fabric of interconnected platforms.”

Wise is talking about interoperability — the notion that different platforms, systems and tools can work together without data being lost as researchers move between them.

Interoperability has already made its mark on other segments of higher education, for example the learning management system market. Instead of being locked into a single system and its default grade book, calendar and collaboration tools for years, colleges can now increasingly customize their systems by plugging in digital tools that work across all platforms. The focus has since shifted to ensuring users can track learning analytics data, too, regardless of which platforms and tools they use.

“The idea of the Internet is that it should be easier and more efficient for researchers to enter information once and for all our systems in the background to share that work,” Wise said. “Information doesn’t need to be replicated in lots of different places. It needs to be available, switch across platforms as needed, and there needs to be good two-way linking between those services.”

In the case of the UF pilot, interoperability doesn’t just benefit researchers. Elsevier, since it serves up the articles from ScienceDirect, collects data about what users are reading, Wise said.

While the pilot could be seen as UF handing some control of its institutional repository over to Elsevier, Russell said she views the partnership as “enriching” the content available. The articles available through ScienceDirect don’t replace any of the university’s own content, she pointed out. Additionally, the repository contains dissertations, theses and other materials the university has digitized — including more than 11 million images, grant proposals, undergraduate research projects and more.

UF plans to pursue similar partnerships with other publishers, and it also hopes to expand the Elsevier pilot, Russell said.

The next stage of the project will likely look at how to increase access for users who aren’t subscribers. The goal, Wise said, will be to grant any user the option to see “some full text” — either the published article (after an embargo period) or a manuscript.

“Most repositories don’t hold as much information as [universities would] like,” Wise said. “We can save them some hassle and effort by working together.”

Books and Publishing
Publishing Industry
Editorial Tags:

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Paul Fain

A decade ago just 35 percent of students at the State University of New York at Buffalo graduated within four years. That number climbed to 55 percent last year, and the gain was accompanied by a rare narrowing of graduation-rate gaps for minority and low-income student populations.

A key part of the university’s broad completion push is a pledge it introduced for students in 2012. And the so-called Finish in 4 program features serious commitments, by both students and the university.

A. Scott Weber, senior vice provost for academic affairs at SUNY Buffalo, helped create the pledge. He describes it as a demonstration of “joint responsibilities to make progress to a degree.”

The 1,479 incoming students who took the university’s pledge in 2012 signed their names on a piece of paper and promised to register for classes on time, follow a structured curricular plan and talk with an academic adviser at least once a semester.

Students also took an assessment designed to help them choose a major and career path as part of the pledge. And they have to be in an approved major by the time they complete 60 credits, which typically is the midpoint to a bachelor’s degree.

Half the university’s incoming class took the pledge in 2012. This academic year more than three-quarters of new students signed onto an updated digital version. Weber also signs each pledge, as do student advisers.

“We track every one of these students,” Weber said. “If they haven’t met their goals, they’re no longer part of the cohort.”

That can come with a cost — Finish in 4 includes the university’s promise that students who meet their obligations but do not graduate in four years may finish their degree at the university without paying any more tuition and fees. While students who wash out of the program still get all the supports, like advising, the tuition guarantee goes away.

Likewise, the university has tried to make sure students can get into the classes they need to finish on time.

The University at Buffalo is a big place. It enrolls 20,000 undergraduates and 10,000 graduate students. The university, like many of its large public peers, often had overbooked courses, including ones required for completing a major.

“We felt we weren’t really meeting some of our obligations,” said Weber.

So the university bit the bullet in 2012, creating 300 new course sections — the equivalent of 10,000 slots for students. And many of those new sections were in high-demand courses.

The university spent $2.1 million on the program in the fall of 2012, officials said. And spending on additional student advising and other supports has raised the annual cost to $2.5 million.

It has paid off for students.

Of the initial group of pledge signers, 930, or 63 percent, have graduated, topping the national on-time rate of 34 percent for public institutions. (The rate is 60 percent for research-intensive universities like Buffalo, according to federal data, meaning the university has closed that gap.) And while the self-selecting pledge group topped their nonpledging peers — 52.7 percent of whom have graduated, according to preliminary data — Buffalo’s overall four-year rate also is close behind at 55 percent. And the universitywide, six-year graduation rate is a solid 74 percent.

Likewise, the percentage of black students at the university who completed their degrees within six years rose by 20 percentage points in the decade before 2013, earning Buffalo praise in a report by the Education Trust.

One reason Finish in 4 has helped more than just the students who signed on is that its support services are available to all. And the scale of the program has helped it become a widely known priority.

“A lot of this, we were doing before,” Weber said. But the influence of the Finish in 4 “brand” has been more powerful on campus than predicted. “This is part of our university’s vocabulary.”

Changing Status Quo

Paula Lazatin signed the pledge in 2012, when she first enrolled at the university. She was surprised to learn that so many students weren’t graduating on time.

“I really wanted to make sure I was one of the ones who finished,” Lazatin said.

The national college completion campaign, which President Obama and foundations have led, obviously extends to research universities. But some might share Lazatin’s surprise that roughly half of students graduate within four years at universities like Buffalo, which is a member of the prestigious Association of American Universities.

A growing number of research universities want to improve graduation rates. For example, the University Innovation Alliance is a relatively new coalition of 11 research universities around the country that are sharing techniques for getting more students to graduation and for cutting equity gaps.

Likewise, the University of Texas at Austin is spending big to boost its four-year graduation rates, which have long lingered just above 50 percent. So has the University of Minnesota Twin Cities, a flagship like UT Austin, which has increased its rate to 59 percent from 42 percent in a relatively short period of time.

Completion experts praised Buffalo for its decade-long push on graduation rates, which this year will include a universitywide early alert system to identify students who are struggling and help to get them back on track. And while Buffalo has gotten slightly more selective in its admissions during the same time period (with a 25-point gain in students’ median SAT score), Weber said selectivity hasn’t been a primary driver of the graduation-rate gains. He points instead to the systematic approach the university has taken to identify and reduce the barriers students face.

Patrick Methvin, deputy director of postsecondary success at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, praised the university’s financial commitment to the effort. “They’re putting skin in the game,” he said.

Methvin cited other completion programs that funnel money and resources to helping students get to the finish line, including the City University of New York’s Accelerated Study in Associate Programs, which features $4,700 in additional spending per year for each student participant. But he said that level of fiscal commitment is far from the norm.

Many campuses, systems and states are making on-time completion a priority, said Danette Howard, vice president for policy and mobilization at Lumina Foundation. For example, she cited the spread of 15 to Finish programs, which encourage students to take 15 credits per semester. But Howard said relatively few of those efforts include the sort of spending Buffalo has added for student supports.

“They put in place all these wraparound services to ensure that students graduate on time,” she said.

Research and Completion

The University at Buffalo had enough advising capacity in place when the program began, Weber said, but the pledge ensured more students were seeing their advisers. Academic departments also created curricular plans for each degree path as part of the completion program.

Some faculty and staff members were wary of the project, Weber acknowledges.

He heard worries about a cheapening of degrees amid the grad-rate push. And advisers wondered if they might have to absorb some of the tuition-guarantee costs as well as more work.

But Satish K. Tripathi, the university’s provost during the program’s creation, was a strong supporter. He made sure it wasn’t just a pilot program, Weber said, with an “everybody’s in” mentality. Tripathi became the university’s president before Finish in 4 began.

Most lingering doubts about the program have been washed away by its success, according to university officials. And it helps, Weber said, that President Obama came to campus in 2013 to unveil his college ratings plan, giving a shout-out during his speech to the university and the progress it has made on graduation rates.

“Not many deans are thinking about their graduation rates at an R1 university,” said Weber, but they are at Buffalo.

Weber said the program has become a recruiting tool for both students and parents, who understandably like the university’s attention to timely graduation.

The SUNY System is also seeking investment to roll out Finish in 4 at all its 64 campuses.

For her part, Lazatin said the pledge was a goal to lean on during the long, hard days when she was taking 21 credits or more in a semester.

“It got overwhelming sometimes,” she said. “But it helped me stay on track.”

This month Lazatin graduated, on time, with three majors.

Editorial Tags:
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SUNY at Buffalo
Image Caption:
SUNY at Buffalo students during a 2013 campus visit by President Obama.

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Jake New

There’s an early scene in the new film Neighbors 2 where three characters — all freshman women who are rushing with a sorority — attend a fraternity party. The women are disgusted by the sexist behavior of the fraternity members and the predatory atmosphere of the house. The décor includes a flashing neon arrow pointing the women upstairs to the men’s bedrooms.

The young women would rather party back at the sorority house and on their own terms. The problem: they can’t. “In the United States, sororities are not allowed to throw parties in their own houses,” a sorority leader tells them. “Only frats can.”

Then, as if talking to the film’s audience, she stresses that the rule is real and encourages people to “look it up.”

While there’s not a law banning sororities from partying (a common, though untrue, sorority legend claims that having alcohol in a house where several women live would legally make the place a brothel), it’s true that the vast majority of sororities are not allowed to drink or serve alcohol. The National Panhellenic Conference, the organization that governs the majority of the country’s sororities, maintains that its not an official NPC policy, but rather an arrangement all its members have agreed to.

“For our member organizations that provide housing, they’ve each made a commitment to provide substance free spaces primarily because they are academic spaces,” Dani Weatherford, executive director of the National Panhellenic Conference, said. “But the reality is that our organizations do host social functions. They simply do so elsewhere on campus or at other venues off-campus. And they provide third-party vendors as at least one way to make sure guests that drink do so in a safe environment.”

The rule is also a way of keeping down insurance costs. Fraternity insurance costs are notoriously high, thanks, in part, to many of the risks that come with their parties. Fraternity members may spend up to $200 per member on insurance policies, while sorority members typically pay around $50.

No matter the origins of the rule, some women have long decried it as sexist.

“Because sororities are prohibited from serving alcohol, they can’t host their own parties,” Jessica Bennet, a columnist who writes about gender issues for Time, wrote in 2014. “They must also abide by strict decorum rules. So night after night, women line up, in tube tops and high heels, vying for entrance. Even their clothes are a signifier of where the power lies.”

If women aren’t allowed to throw their own parties, the argument goes, then those hoping to socialize with other sorority and fraternity members on campus are forced to attend fraternity parties. In a widely criticized decision that highlighted the lopsided nature of the relationship, the National Panhellenic Conference urged University of Virginia sorority members last year to avoid attending a major fraternity party, saying the event could be dangerous.

“This is gender discrimination,” sorority members said in a petition against the decision. “Instead of addressing rape and sexual assault at U.Va., this mandate perpetuates the idea that women are inferior, sexual objects.”

In Neighbors 2, the rules against partying lead the three freshmen to start their own independent sorority off campus, starting an escalating prank war between the house and the sorority’s new neighbors. “This is a sexist and restrictive system,” one of the women says. “We’re going to start a sorority where we can party the way that we want to.”

The plot line has generated a fair amount of positive reviews for the film, with critics surprised by the raunchy comedy’s feminist tilt. The arguments made by the movie’s characters echo those made by some real-life sorority members.

In 1988, Dartmouth College’s Sigma Delta split from its national sorority because of “irreconcilable differences.” Those differences included disagreeing with the organization’s “emphasis on men in national songs and overall attitudes.” And, yes, the now independent Sigma Delta throws parties.

“Fraternity members feel so entitled to women’s bodies, because women have no ownership of the social scene,” Molly Reckford, the sorority’s social chair, told The New York Times last year. “You can’t kick a guy out of his own house.”

That imbalance has led some sexual assault prevention advocates to argue that sorority women would be safer if they could throw — and be in control of — their own parties.

A recent review by United Educators, a risk management and insurance firm, of 305 sexual assault reports on college campuses from 2011 to 2014 found that about 24 percent of repeat offenders of sexual assault were reported as fraternity members.

A study published in the NASPA Journal in 2009 found that 86 percent of fraternity house residents engaged in binge drinking, compared to 45 percent of nonfraternity men. Fraternity members were twice as likely as nonfraternity men to engage in unplanned sex. Another study published by NASPA Journal concluded that women involved in Greek organizations were 74 percent more likely to experience rape than other college women.

While the majority of fraternity members do not commit sexual assault, they are three times more likely to than nonmembers, found a 2007 study authored by John Foubert, a professor of higher education and student affairs at Oklahoma State University and founder of the sexual assault prevention program One in Four.

Foubert, however, said he is not sure serving alcohol at sororities would be the best way to combat the problem.

“I believe it is delusional to think that hosting a party with alcohol could lead to fewer sexual assaults, no matter who it is that hosts,” he said. “If a sorority were to host an alcohol party on their own turf, it would be especially difficult to police the activities of intoxicated men. In a fraternity house, such men can be policed by their brothers, sometimes successfully, sometimes not. In a female-controlled space, drunk, sexist men are unlikely to respect the authority of women hosting an event.”

Students and Violence
Image Source:
Universal Pictures
Image Caption:
Free from rules banning alcohol, members of a new independent sorority throw a party in the film ‘Neighbors 2.’

Source: Inside Higher Ed

    

By Regina Sierra Carter

Advice for thoughtfully disappearing during the final stretch of the dissertation.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By John Warner

American culture reveres competition, but sometimes it’s destructive.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Matt Reed

Wrong problem. Wrong solution.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Margaret Andrews

Are we prepared – or are colleges and universities preparing students – for the new world of work?

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs

    

By Joshua Kim

Reconceptualizing the alt-ac career path.

Source: Inside Higher Ed Blogs